Credit unions in the United States are classified into two types: state-chartered and federally chartered. Despite the fact that they share many features, regulations, and aims, the differences in charters have an influence on the regulation and titling of a credit union.
State-chartered credit unions are governed by their individual state’s division of financial services. Federally chartered credit unions all have the term “federal” in their name and are governed by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA).
- Credit unions are financial entities founded, owned, and managed by its members that provide banking services.
- Credit unions are non-profit organizations that are tax-exempt.
- The National Credit Union Association regulates and supervises federal credit unions (FCUs) (NCUA).
- State credit unions follow state-specific rules and procedures instead, however not all states have such legislation in place.
Investopedia / Alison Czinkota
State-Chartered Credit Unions
State charters provide several benefits for credit unions. For example, federal credit unions have maximum interest rate laws, however individual states may have higher or no interest rate charges at all. Furthermore, state regulatory bodies are generally much more acquainted with their local credit unions than the NCUA is with nationally chartered credit unions.
Credit unions are not chartered or regulated in every state. Because Arkansas, Delaware, South Dakota, Wyoming, and the District of Columbia lack state-specific charters, any credit unions operating inside their boundaries must be federally chartered.
Some, but not all, state-chartered credit unions provide deposit insurance guaranteed by the full confidence and credit of the United States government. State-chartered credit unions are required by certain state legislation to be federally insured. The NCUA covers state-chartered credit unions that apply for and get federal insurance.
Federally Chartered Credit Unions
Despite the term “federal” in their name, federal credit unions (FCUs) are not run by the federal government. These organizations are not only regulated by the NCUA, but they are also insured by the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF).
The NCUSIF, which is operated by the NCUA, was formed by Congress in 1970 to cover member share accounts held at federally insured credit unions. The NCUSIF, like the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for banks, is guaranteed by the full confidence and credit of the United States government.
The NCUSIF covers accounts at federally insured credit unions up to $250,000; the $250,000 coverage applies to each share owner, for each account ownership type, every insured credit union.
What Are Credit Unions?
Credit unions are nonprofit financial savings and lending cooperatives in which members also own a portion of the company, separating them from real middlemen such as banks. Many credit unions are deemed more “community-oriented” than other savings and lending banks and have considerably different operating aims.
Credit unions in the United States are non-profit, tax-exempt organizations created under the Federal Credit Union Act of 1934. All credit unions are chartered by either the federal or state governments. They are confined to giving membership to carefully specified portions of the public in order to preserve their tax-exempt status (church groups, labor unions, specific occupations, etc.).
However, separate credit unions may merge and combine their authorized population segments, resulting in numerous credit unions with large memberships. Credit union members elect the board of directors, and members have a say in the choices made by their credit union.
Finally, the distinction between state and federally chartered credit unions is significantly less important than the distinction between credit unions and banks.
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