What Is the Tax-to-GDP Ratio?
A tax-to-GDP ratio measures a country’s tax revenue in relation to the size of its economy as measured by GDP (GDP).Because it displays prospective taxes compared to the GDP, the ratio gives a valuable look into a country’s tax revenue. It also provides insight into the general trend of a country’s tax policy, as well as worldwide comparisons of tax collections between nations.
- The tax-to-GDP ratio compares a country’s tax revenue to the size of its economy.
- This ratio is used in conjunction with other measures to assess how successfully a country’s government allocates its economic resources via taxes.
- Developed countries have larger tax-to-GDP ratios than emerging countries.
- Higher tax revenues imply that a government may spend more on infrastructure, health, and education—all of which are critical to a country’s economy and people’s long-term prospects.
- According to the World Bank, tax collections that exceed 15% of a country’s GDP are essential for economic development and, eventually, poverty alleviation.
Understanding the Tax-to-GDP Ratio
Taxation is an important indicator of a country’s progress and governance. The tax-to-GDP ratio is used to assess how successfully a country’s government allocates its economic resources. Higher tax revenues imply that a government may spend more on infrastructure, health, and education—all of which are critical to a country’s economy and people’s long-term prospects.
Tax Policy and Economic Development
According to the World Bank, tax collections that exceed 15% of a country’s GDP are essential for economic development and, eventually, poverty alleviation. This amount of taxes guarantees that governments have the funds to invest in the future and achieve long-term economic development. In general, developed nations have a much greater percentage. In 2019, the average among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development members was 33.8%.
According to one view, as economies improve and wages increase, people begin to expect more government services, whether in healthcare, public transit, or education. This would explain why the European Union’s tax-to-GDP ratio in 2019 is so much higher than in Asia-Pacific, where ratios varied from 11.9% in Indonesia to 35.4% in Nauru (although the majority of nations did not have a ratio as high as the OECD average of 33.8%).
The Direction of Tax Policy
The tax-to-GDP ratio is used by policymakers to compare tax collections from year to year because it provides a better estimate of the growth and decline in tax income than basic quantities. Tax revenues are directly tied to economic activity, increasing during times of quicker economic development and falling during periods of slower economic growth. Tax revenues normally increase and decrease faster than GDP as a percentage, but the ratio should remain reasonably stable absent dramatic changes in growth.
However, the ratio may move drastically in circumstances of large changes in tax legislation or during severe economic downturns. According to the OECD, the United States’ tax-to-GDP ratio declined more than any other OECD member in 2018. This was mostly due to former President Donald Trump’s $1.5 trillion tax reduction, which he approved in 2017.
In the United States, the tax-to-GDP ratio has fallen from 28.3% in 2000 to 24.5% in 2019. Over the same time span, the OECD average in 2019 was somewhat higher than in 2000 (33.8% vs. 33.3%).
In terms of tax-to-GDP ratio, the United States placed 32nd out of 37 OECD nations in 2019.
There has never been agreement among policymakers and economists on the ideal tax strategy for economic growth. On one side, there are some who think that raising tax rates will create badly needed income and alleviate the United States’ rising debt situation. On the other hand, others argue that increasing taxes is a terrible idea and that lower rates raise revenue by encouraging the economy.
Tax to GDP Ratio FAQs
What Is a Tax-to-GDP Ratio?
The tax-to-GDP ratio is the proportion of a country’s tax revenue to its gross domestic product (GDP).This ratio is used to assess how successfully a country’s government manages its economic resources. The tax-to-GDP ratio is computed by dividing a certain time period’s tax revenue by GDP.
Does GDP Include Tax Revenue?
Tax revenue comprises income and profit taxes, social security payments, taxes on goods and services, payroll taxes, and taxes on the ownership and transfer of property. Total tax revenue is included in a country’s GDP. Total tax revenue, expressed as a percentage of GDP, is the portion of a country’s production collected by the government via taxes.
What Is a Good Tax-to-GDP Ratio?
According to the World Bank, a tax-to-GDP ratio of 15% or above supports long-term economic development and, hence, poverty alleviation.
In the United States, the tax-to-GDP ratio has fallen from 28.3% in 2000 to 24.5% in 2019.
How Do I Graph Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP?
The World Bank publishes line graphs of tax income as a proportion of GDP for selected nations and economies from 1972 to 2019. Years are represented by the values on the horizontal axis (x-axis). The percentages are represented by the values on the vertical axis (y-axis) (of tax revenue compared to GDP).The depicted data points show how these variables fluctuate over time.
Do Tax Revenue and GDP Have a Direct Relationship?
Changes in a country’s or economy’s taxes have an influence on its level of economic activity (and therefore, its GDP).Government departments and organizations, think tanks, and academic and private-sector academics have all performed extensive study on the link between tax policy, jobs, and economic growth.
The key topic addressed by this study is whether tax rates result in economic growth or contraction (more employment vs. fewer jobs). GDP, especially real GDP, is often regarded as the strongest indicator of economic growth (which is an inflation-adjusted measure of GDP).
Long-term tax rates for an average-income American household have stayed relatively steady. It was at 21% in 1947, for example, and remained there until the mid-1960s, when it fell to between 16% and 19%. From the mid-1960s through the mid-1990s, rates remained in the 16% to 19% range. The percentage maintained about 15.5% from 2002 to 2015. The GDP of the United States was $243 billion in 1947. Despite relatively steady tax rates, the United States’ GDP has risen to nearly $18,905 billion by 2017.
Moreover, there were around 11 recessionary phases over this time span. From this vantage point, tax rates on the ordinary American household had no discernible influence on GDP during this time period.
While it is true that raising or lowering taxes (and tax revenues) has an effect on economic growth, there are obviously other variables that have a greater influence on the economy’s direction (including, but not limited to, interest rates set by the Federal Reserve and broader technological advancements in the workforce).
Where Does the United States Rank in Terms of Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP?
In terms of tax-to-GDP ratio, the United States placed 32nd out of 37 OECD nations in 2019. The United States had a tax-to-GDP ratio of 24.5% in 2019 (the OECD average in 2019 was 33.8%). In terms of tax-to-GDP ratio, the United States ranked 32nd out of 37 OECD nations in 2018.
Which Countries Have the Highest and the Lowest Tax Burdens as a Percentage of GDP?
France has the largest tax burden in terms of GDP (46.2%). Tax-to-GDP ratios are likewise relatively high in Denmark (46%), Belgium (44.6%), Sweden (44%), and Finland (43.3%). At 1.4%, Kuwait has the lowest tax burden as a percentage of GDP.
Where Does the U.S. Rank As Far as Corporate Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP?
The United States collects lower tax revenues than other similar economies. For example, in 2019, corporation tax collections in the United States amounted for just 1% of GDP. Among the Group of Seven (G7) countries—Japan (4.2%), Canada (3.8%), the United Kingdom (2.5%), France (2.2%), Germany (2.0%), and Italy (1.9%)—the United States has the lowest corporate income tax collection, at 1%. The G7 nations are an informal gathering of rich democracies; the leaders of these governments (together with officials from the European Union) meet annually at the G7 Summit.
The rate of federal corporation taxes in the United States peaked in the late 1960s. It has been declining since then. In reality, the current corporate tax rate is less than half of what it was in the 1950s and 1960s.
Can Raising Taxes Help the Economy?
Tax cuts are an efficient approach to raise demand in an economy in the near term (the next one or two years). This is because consumers have more discretionary income and firms have more funds to recruit more employees and invest in their operations. Tax cuts boost workers’ take-home earnings. Tax cuts boost corporations’ after-tax cash flow. This excess cash flow may be used by businesses to pay dividends and expand activities, and it can make hiring and investment more appealing. Increases in taxes have the opposite impact.
Tax cuts may encourage individuals to work harder, attract more low-skilled employees into the labor market, promote saving, drive corporations to invest locally (rather than globally), and boost the invention of new ideas via research in the long run. However, tax cuts might limit economic development in the long run by rising deficits. Furthermore, if tax cuts raise employees’ after-tax income, they may opt to work less, which may have a negative influence on supply.
It is difficult to assess how rising taxes affects the economy because policy changes never occur in a vacuum—there are several variables that contribute to economic development (or the reverse), making it difficult to separate the effects of raising (or cutting) taxes. Higher taxes, on the other hand, have been shown in the past to be consistent with economic development and job creation. If policymakers utilize the money from tax hikes to reduce budget deficits, the economy will benefit greatly.
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