What Is a Trading Session?
A trading session is a period of time that corresponds to the prime daytime trading hours for a certain location. Depending on the markets and locales being mentioned, this statement will refer to various hours. The trading session that the individual investor or trader will refer to is often a single day of operations in the local financial market, from the opening bell to the closing bell.
The currency, futures, stock, and bond markets all have unique features that define their separate trading sessions for the day, and the principal trading hours naturally fluctuate from one nation to the next owing to differing time zones.
- A trading session is a certain asset’s major trading hours and location.
- The regular trading period for U.S. equities is from 9:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EasternTime (ET).
- The NYSE’s business hours are also the busiest trading hours within a 24-hour period.
- Varying markets may have different operating hours, with currency markets including multiple overlapping sessions across different time zones throughout the globe.
How a Trading Session Works
Trading session hours might differ depending on asset type and region. On weekdays, the main trading session for US equities begins at 9:30 a.m. and finishes at 4:00 p.m. EasternTime (ET) (holidays excepted).These timings are mostly determined by the New York Stock Exchange’s (NYSE) business hours, which shut early at 1:00 p.m. ET on many occasions throughout the year related with holidays.
The typical trading hours for the US bond market are 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. ET. Meanwhile, futures markets have varied trading hours based on the exchange and the commodity being traded.
Traders should be informed of the trading session hours for any securities and derivatives that they are interested in trading ahead of time to avoid any unanticipated complications.
Some markets may offer pre-market or after-hours trading sessions in addition to normal trading hours. Other markets even have trading sessions that last 24 hours.
Pre-Market and After-Hours Trading Sessions
On weekdays, pre-market trading for US equities takes place between 4:00 a.m. and 9:30 a.m. ET. On weekdays, after-hours trading is from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. ET, however these periods may vary somewhat each exchange.
Pre-market and after-hours trading are attractive ways to profit on big news releases or other circumstances that occur outside of normal trading hours. With that in mind, here are a few things that investors should keep in mind while trading after hours. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) specifically mentions eight such risk factors:
- Inability to See or Act on Quotations: Some brokers limit investors’ access to quotes from their own trading system rather than other electronic communication networks (ECNs).
- Lack of Liquidity: Because after-hours trading involves fewer participants, there is often much less liquidity than during normal trading sessions.
- Larger Quote Spreads: When there is less trading activity, bid-ask spreads widen, making order execution more difficult.
- Price Volatility: There may be more volatility than usual, especially if there is a breaking news event with substantial market ramifications.
- Price Uncertainty: The price of equities traded after-hours may vary from the price of stocks traded during normal trading sessions.
- Bias Toward Limit Orders: During after-hours sessions, many ECNs only take limit orders rather than market orders.
- Professional Traders Compete: Many after-hours traders work for huge institutions and have access to more information.
- Computer Delays: Because there is less technical help available during pre-market or after-hours trading sessions, transaction execution delays may occur.
24-Hour Trading Sessions
Some marketplaces have a 24-hour trading period. The worldwide foreign exchange (FX) market, in which currencies are exchanged, is one of the most prominent. The currency market is the world’s biggest and most liquid market.
The currency market, unlike the equities market, has no physical exchange. It is made up of a number of significant banks and brokerage businesses that exchange currencies with one another. From Sunday evening through Friday night, the currency market is open 24 hours a day, five days a week.
Regular Trading Sessions Around the World
The following are the world’s 20 biggest stock exchanges by market capitalization, organized by continent.
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